ID26 is dedicated to X-ray spectroscopy in the applied sciences. The high-brilliance X-ray beam allows for absorption studies on very dilute samples. X-ray emission spectroscopy is performed by means of a crystal spectrometer. By combining the tuneable incident energy with an emission spectrometer we take advantage of resonance effects that can provide detailed information on the electronic structure. ID26 is equipped for different sample environments to perform in situ studies and we can also adapt to a variety of user experimental stations.

Scientific Applications

The local coordination and electronic structure of an X-ray absorbing atom are studied by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. X-ray emission (XES) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectroscopy are sensitive to electron-electron interactions and give information that is complementary to absorption spectroscopy. We can thus study orbital splittings, spin- and oxidation states as well as the local symmetry and coordination. RIXS gives access to element-specific excitations of only a few eV that can arise from local (e.g. d-d), nearest neighbor (e.g. charge transfer) and collective excitations.

With the hard X-ray probe, very few restrictions apply to the possible sample environments. Our main experimental interests are therefore in situ studies in applied fields. We have ongoing projects incoordination chemistry, catalysis, materials science, magnetism and environmental sciences.

For some examples and an introduction to XAS/XES please visit

You may find the following two publications interesting:

1) Review papers on the techniques:

High-resolution 1s core hole spectroscopy in 3d transition metal complexes - electronic and structural information, Coord. Chem. Rev. 2005, 249 (1–2), 65–95

M. Rovezzi and P. Glatzel, Hard X-ray emission spectroscopy: a powerful tool for characterization of magnetic semiconductors, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 2014, 29 (2).

E. Gallo and P. Glatzel, Valence to Core X-ray Emission Spectroscopy

The following book chapter gives a general introduction to X-ray spectroscopy:

P. Glatzel and A. Juhin, X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy

2) Some thoughts on RIXS, RXES and HERFD can be found in

Chemical Sensitivity of Kβ and Kα X -Ray Emission from a Systematic Investigation of Iron Compounds. Inorg. Chem. 2020, 1–16

New Reflections on Hard X-Ray Photon-in/Photon-out Spectroscopy. Nanoscale 2020, 12 (30), 16270–16284

Reflections on Hard X-Ray Photon-in/Photon-out Spectroscopy for Electronic Structure Studies. J. Electron Spectros. Relat. Phenomena 2013, 188, 17–25.

3) ID26 developed a little tool to help plan photon-in/photon-out experiments

M. Bianchini and P. Glatzel, A tool to plan photon-in/photon-out experiments: count rate, dips and self-absorption

Complementary Information

Tips for Users

ID26 welcomes users from all fields of natural sciences.

You find the deadlines for proposal submission on the ESRF web page with all necessary information. Please state clearly on the form what absorption edge/emission line you would like to measure and the concentration of the element(s) you are interested in. It is very important to give as much information as possible on the sample and the conditions: matrix, solvents, thickness, substrate composition, in-situ environment, ... since all these factors influence the measurements.

Please do not hesitate to contact us before the submission deadline in case you have questions. In case your proposal is accepted you will receive notice from the user office and shortly after the scheduled dates from the beamline responsible. A beam line staff member will be assigned to you as your local contact.

It is the responsibility of the users to plan their experiments early in advance and to contact the beamline staff to discuss the experimental setup. Users with experiments that require gases (e.g. catalysis) should ask us to order them as soon as possible (delivery time up to 2 months!)

Your local contact will give advice and prepare the beamline in order to be ready for your experiment. Please consider including your local contact and other ESRF staff as collaborators in case you require an elaborate experimental setup and/or you do not think that you can run the experiment by yourself.

Please view the general ESRF guidelines for users.