Fig. 66a: L2,3 X-ray absorption spectra for a 1.6 atomic layer (AL) cobalt film with left and right circularly polarized light. Insert ­ magnetisation curve and a fitted Langevin function for a 1.6 AL cobalt film.

Fig. 66b: The magnetic circular dichroism (MCXD) spectra for 8000 (dots) and 300 (line) cobalt atoms/cluster. Insert ­ The experimental geometry: the circularly polarized X-rays are incident on the sample (in grey) and the emitted fluorescence X-rays are detected with a silicon photo-diode (in white).