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the new beam from EBS, initially with users in remote access and, later in the year when travel restrictions were lifted, with users onsite. The new CdTe Eiger 4M detector is used routinely at both end-stations, allowing a gain in the q-range in structural studies and a gain in time resolution for coherent scattering experiments like XPCS. ID10-EH1 is taking full advantage of the much higher degree of coherence from the EBS and large area detectors for simultaneous measurement of XPCS/CXDI and WAXS. The latter opened possibilities for simultaneous measurements of dynamics, imaging and atomic ordering of samples. For the first time, the atomic scale dynamics was probed under high pressure at millisecond time scales. The data analysis capabilities are continuously improving to handle large data volumes.
The surface scattering station extended the Qz-range from 2.4 A-1 to 7 A-1 for reflectivity studies on liquid surfaces and interfaces by using a double-crystal deflector (DCD) stage. The implementation of a movable flight tube after the sample in combination with the DCD makes it possible to perform XRR and GISAXS simultaneously from liquid interfaces on the submicron length scale. An example of an in-situ study of the growth of graphene on liquid copper using a CVD reactor is shown on page 66.
The biomedical beamline ID17 hosted 36 user experiments. The new Eiger-2-CdTe 1M detector for monochromatic CT imaging was characterised and used for the first time in November. A 26-mm undulator was installed in the straight section, complementing the two wiggler sources. Characterisation of the source is ongoing, with the aim to offer monochromatic CT imaging with submicron resolution in the satellite hutch EH2. As in previous years, the main body of publications resulting from work on ID17 were in the field of biomedical imaging and X-ray radiotherapy, totalling 36 publications. The article on imaging neuroinflammation after experimental stroke is a good example of how complementary approaches can lead to a relevant, concrete application, namely that
NanoGd-enhanced MRI may be used as a safe and reliable imaging biomarker of neuroinflammation (page 74). The work on the benefits of multiport microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) (page 68) was essential to pave the way towards pet trials that started in September 2021. So far, two dogs bearing spontaneous brain tumours have been treated with MRT.
EBSL1 is a new beamline project that is devoted to the use of coherent (laser-like) beams to investigate the structure and dynamics of complex systems. The beamline will take full advantage of the EBS upgrade, which increases the fraction of coherent beam by more than one order of magnitude. The sample will be about 200 m from source, offering the possibility to use an innovative optical layout that will provide unprecedented tunability in terms of beam size and degree of coherence. The extended energy range (6-35 keV), the possibility of using monochromatic as well as pink beam and the detector positioning systems will make this beamline unique. The new beamline is expected to be operational in 2025.
During 2021, the laboratories of the Partnership for Soft Condensed Matter (PSCM) welcomed a steadily increasing number of ESRF and ILL users after the closure imposed by the pandemic. Some of the current PSCM partners restarted their scientific programmes onsite by seconding young researchers to the PSCM labs. New internal collaborations with the Structural Biology group strengthened the development of 3D-printed microfluidic sample delivery systems for beamlines. Laboratory improvements include a new -80°C freezer, a new commercial 3D-printer and upgrades of the optical microscopy and rheology platforms. The new PSCM website is now online at pscm-grenoble. eu. Finally, the ESRF and ILL managements initiated the organisation of a joint review of the PSCM to consider its renewal after 10 years of operation